APIANUS, Petrus (1495-1552). Tipus Orbis Universalis Iuxta Ptolomei Cosmographi Traditionem Et Americi Vespucii Alorique. Vienna: Johannes Singrenius for Lucas Alantse, 1520.
Single sheet, float-mounted and framed (sheet size: 13 x 18 inches; 11 4/8 x 16 inches to the neat line; framed size: 24 x 29 inches). Fine woodcut map of the world in a cordiform projection by Laurent Fries, the title within a banner along the top edge, with a globe and sphere hanging beneath, the compass directions outside the neat line, showing North and South America, all surrounded by an elaborate border of windheads, wreaths and clouds.
THE FIRST AVAILABLE PRINTED MAP TO BEAR THE NAME AMERICA
Published in the 1520 edition of Julius Caius SOLINUS's (second half 3rd-century AD) "in. C.IVLII Solini [Polyhistora] Enarrationes". The world map prepared by Peter Apian is preceded in naming "America" only by and modeled on the large 1507 wall map by Waldseemüller, of which only one example remains. North and South America are represented as narrow strips of land separated by a wide channel. The northern continent is called merely "Terra incognita," but the southern has the inscription: "Anno d 1497 haec terra cum adiacetib, insulis inuenta est per Columbum Ianuensem ex mandato regis Castellae America puincia", in homage to Columbus as the discoverer of America, rather than Amerigo Vespucci, whom Waldeseemuller had named the landmass for on his map of 1507.
Three sets of initials appear cut into the woodblock: "Laurent Fries, whose initials appear in the lower right-hand corner, was probably the co-draughtsman or woodcutter... the other initials are those of Johann Kamers (Camertius) in whose book the map appeared and (in monograme form) L A or Luca Alantses who paid for the production of the map" (Shirley 45).
During the sixteenth-century, the quest for geographical knowledge of the world was primarily spurred on by trade and, in turn, the great trading nations of Europe also became leaders in the printing of maps. Italy and Germany were at the forefront of both, the former through her various sea-ports and the latter because of her location connecting land routes to the east and south-east. Centers for Italian map-making developed in Venice and in Germany, Nuremberg, the Rhineland and Vienna were pre-eminent. Peter Apian, also known by his Latin name Petrus Apainus, was professor of mathematics in the latter of these German centers. He also held mathematic chairs at Ingolstadt and Innsbruck and was known as a great astronomer. These skills combined with his interest in geography led to the establishment of his own printing press in Landshut. "His text book 'Cosmographicus Liber' first came out in 1524 and was re-issued for over eighty years" (Shirley, 45).