JANSSONIUS, Johannes (1588-1664). Belgii Novi, Angliae Novae, et Partis Virginiae Novissima Delineatio. Amsterdam: Amsterdam:Pieter Schenk and Gerald Valk, [after 1694].

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Single sheet (21 x 24 2/8 inches). Exceptionally fine double-page engraved map of New England, including Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Maine, New York, New Jersey, Maryland and part of Virginiawith magnificent hand-colour, the scale, dedication and title each within elaborate rococo cartouches along the bottom edge, the land decorated with images of native American villages and wild animals, the ocean with war canoe (old vertical fold a little browned in the crease, remains of guard on verso).

The third state, with the Valk and Schenk imprint, with the added dedication to Gualthero de Raet with his coat of arms and the imprint of Valk and Schenk, first published by Jansson in 1650, and one of the fundamental prototype maps of New England, the then most important part of colonial America, of the 17th-century. Initially compiled from numerous manuscript and printed sources, the map follows the general outline of Adriaen Block's chart of 1614 with the St. Lawrence River and Lake Champlain based on Champlain. Many European settlements are depicted with several English settlements appearing for the first time.

Jansson's primary concern was "to produce a detailed and informative map of the Dutch province of New Netherland and the surrounding region. The result is a valuable historical source and as evocative a picture as any we have of North America between Jamestown and Quebec. Besides these two towns, the settlements on the Delawre (Zuydt), Hudson and Connecticut Rivers, those in the vicinity of Manhattan and Long Island and those along the Massachsetts coast; besides the imperfectly mapped coastline and the conjectured course of rivers lay an almost unknown continent. Indians surrounded them and from the numerous native names on the map one can almost feel the pressure keeping the settlers back.

"At the time this map was made the Swedish control of the Delaware River was passing to the Dutch. In 1638 a Swedish expedition had come out, established the province of New Sweden and built Fort Christina in honour of their queen. The names shown along the Delaware River on all the maps in this series refer to the forts and settlements that were set up by the numerous expeditions that followed. Often the settlers were farmers but many of them were pressed men, offered this as an alternative to prison" (Campbell "The Jansson-Visscher Maps of New England" in Tooley's "The Mapping of America", page 279).

As the colonisation of New England progressed new issues of the map were published, "many of the more important events are reflected on the maps and may themselves have provided stimulus for re-publication. The capture of Fort Kasimier by the Dutch in 1655 caused the city of Amserdam to found the colony of New Amstel under its protecting walls and it seems likely that four separate copies of the prototype map were made in response to the sudden interest in the region. The English capture of New York in 1664, followed by the surrender of New Netherland and the Dutch settlements on the Delaware River are recorded in the English maps in the series, Speed and Seller, and the Ogilby-Montanus" (Campbell, page 280). The creation of New Jersey and Philadelphia are all reflected in later issues of the map. Burden #305; Fite & Freeman pp. 146-8; Tooley (Amer) p. 284, plate #146.