JAMES, Edwin (1797-1861), compiler. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, Performed in the Years 1819 and '20
JAMES, Edwin (1797-1861), compiler. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains, Performed in the Years 1819 and '20. Under the Command of Major Stephen H. Long. Philadelphia: H.C. Carey and I. Lea, 1822-1823.
3 volumes: 2 text volumes, 8vo., (8 2/8 x 5 2/8 inches); and atlas volume, folio (11 4/8 x 9 inches). Atlas with 2 engraved double-page maps after S.H. Long by Young & Delleker, 8 engraved plates, including one hand-colored after S. Seymour and T.R. Peale by C.G. Childs, Lawson, F. Kearney, W. Hay, Young & Delleker, and one double-page plate of geological cross sections Uniformly bound in full mottled claf antique by Trevor Lloyd. First edition. Major Stephen Harriman Long (1784-1864), considered himself to be the natural successor to Lewis and Clark. His expedition into the trans-Mississippi West was the first to be accompanied by artists, and as such the accompanying atlas is of enormous importance: including not only detailed maps, but images of Native American encampments, rituals and artifacts, as well as views of the Great Plains. During 1816 and 1817 "he crisscrossed Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, and Missouri, examining army garrisons and gathering general scientific data about the region. In 1817 he led a small party up the Mississippi River to the site of Minneapolis, where he dealt with the Indians and sought future sites for military posts. During the winter of 1817-1818 he traveled up the Arkansas River, choosing the site for what became Fort Smith, Arkansas. Later in 1818 Secretary of War John C. Calhoun decided to have Long organize and lead a scientific expedition up the Missouri River to the Rocky Mountains. He ordered the major to Pittsburgh, where Long designed and supervised the construction of a steamboat, the 'Western Engineer', that was to carry the scientists west... On 5 May 1819 the 'Western Engineer ' began its journey down the Ohio River to St. Louis. Long had assembled an impressive group of scientists for the expedition, including William Baldwin, Titian R. Peale, Thomas Say, and Samuel Seymour. Despite their long-awaited start, trouble with the steamboat design and machinery, a lack of efficient fuel, and the muddy Missouri River water all combined to slow the boat. Frequent breakdowns hindered upriver progress so that when the scientists halted near present Omaha, Nebraska, in September 1819, they had fallen far short of earlier expectations. As a result, the War Department ended its effort to explore the western rivers by steamboat.
"The following summer Long and a much-reduced party of soldiers and scientists set out to explore the central plains. Drought, lack of horses, an inadequate supply of food, and faulty maps caused the explorers much difficulty. They traveled west to the Rocky Mountains and then south to the Arkansas River. There half of the party turned east while Long led the rest south in search of the headwaters of the Red River. They hunted in vain, and having depleted their food and water, they headed east along one of the branches of the Canadian River, having failed to locate the Red. The scientists dispersed at Fort Smith as they returned east. Long's negative description of the central plains as the Great American Desert appeared on maps for the next generation. The explorers published their findings in the three-volume 'Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains . . ." (1823), compiled by Edwin James [as here]" (Roger L. Nichols for ANB).
The Long Expedition was the third major American exploration into the trans-Mississippi West, following those of Lewis and Clark, and Pike, and much was expected of him: "The object of the Expedition, is to acquire as thorough and accurate knowledge as may be practicable, of a portion of our country, which is daily becoming more interesting. you will permit nothing worthy of notice, to escape your attention. ascertain some point in the 49th parallel of latitude, which separates our possessions from those of Great Britain. You will conciliate the Indians by kindness and presents, and will ascertain, as far as practicable, the number and character of the various tribes, with the extent of country claimed by each." Unfortunately funding for the expedition was withdrawn in 1821 before all objectives could be met, although it did succeed in founding the myth of the "Great American Desert" which appears to the West of the Rocky Mountains on the map "Country drained by the Mississippi Western Section" and is "frequented by roving bands of Indians who have no fixed places of residence but roam from place to place in quest of game". Bradford 2637; Graff 2188; Howes J-41; Pilling Proof-sheets 1958; Sabin 35682; Streeter sale III:1783; Wagner-Camp-Becker 25:1; Wheat "Mapping the Transmississippi West" 353, and II, p.80.