De BRY, Johann Theodor, (1560-1623) and Johann Israel de Bry (1565-1609). Part II, Plate 08, The Brahman Indian Priests With Their Traders. From the “Little Voyages”
Plate VIII, Von den Brahmanen das it Indianischen PfaffenItem.
From Part II of Johann Theodor de Bry (1561-1623) and Johann Isreal de Bry's (1565-1609) Orientalische Indien (“Little Voyages”), Ander Theil der Orientalischen...Frankfurt: 1598 (first edition)
Engraving with original, early 17th century hand color heightened with gold on laid paper; paper dimensions: approximately: 11 1/2 x 7 1/2 inches
Printed by Johan Saur
van Groesen 43
BRAHMAN IN INDIA
According to the descriptions in Icones, various peoples live in the city and environs of Goa: heathens, Moors, Jews, Arabians, Armenians, Persians and Banyans from Cambaia. These last are known for their accurate knowledge of pearls. They refrain from eating or killing any animals since they believe that animals house human souls; they often buy them to free them, according to Icones. The illustration shows a Banyan second from the right. The Brahmins (second from the left) are heathens, according to Van Linschoten, but we know them as the priestly caste of the Hindus.*
Translation of text:
Title: The Brahman Indian priests with their traders.
Text: Those Brahman are the most common Indian heathens and that's why they are regular priests. Their proportion and appearance is similar to the Europeans just their color is more yellow/ they walk around naked and when they go out they put on a simple cotton skirt and put a sheet around their head over their upper body from shoulder to the underarm/ they wear a three piece wire-like yarn. At home their women are completely naked/ but as soon as they are in public they hang a sheet over their head/ which partly is bound over their body. That is how almost all Indian women walk around.
The other illustration shows the Benianen and Gusuraten from Campalen who are traders that skillfully trade with gemstones they are sharp-witted in their trading their color is like the Brahman/ sometimes slightly whiter and they wear a long white silk skirt like the Brahman and red pointed shoes: they don't eat anything that had life in it/ like the Brahmans.
The third kind in this illustration are the Canares and Decanyns from the land Decan or Ballagate. Those are usually the small traders in Goa, with fabric silk and other goods: they are also gold and silver jewelers. Their clothing is similar to the Brahmans and Benians except for the shoes which they wear in an ancient manner they grow their beards which the Benians don't do. They eat everything without pork ox cow and rotten meat which they decide is cheap. Look at chapters 6. 7. and 38.**
ENGRAVED PLATES FROM VOLUME II OF DE BRY’S ‘LITTLE VOYAGES’ OF THE EAST INDIES
Documenting the Asia Journeys of Van Linschoten. Featuring Depictions of Gabon, Mozambique, India, Ormus, Moluccas, and China
The Itinerario of Jan Huygen van Linschoten (ca. 1563, Haarlem - 1611 Enkhuizen) literally translates from the Latin as "travel report." It is the first Dutch description of a journey to the East.
Jan Huygen van Linschoten undertook the journey as commissioned by the Portuguese. Upon his return to the Netherlands after many years of travel, Van Linschoten chronicled his experiences. Jan Huygen wrote his travel report, which was published in 1596, in his hometown of Enkhuizen. In doing so he was assisted by Doctor Paludanus, a collector of rarities and curiosities, owner of a botanical garden, an encyclopedist of the newly discovered parts of the globe.
How did Van Linschoten find himself in Asia? Around 1579 the young man, 16 or 17 years old at the time, followed his two brothers to Seville, Spain. A year later he would move to Portugal, where, with his brother's help, he found a position as a clerk in the retinue of Vincente de Fonseca, the newly appointed archbishop of Goa on the west coast of India.
Van Linschoten would make his first journey in 1583, sailing to India with the archbishop's retinue. The journey gave him the opportunity to collect all sorts of information from various sources on the Portuguese empire in Asia: about products that were being traded, fauna of the region, customs and habits of the peoples; but above all Van Linschoten noted down information about the route to Asia.
In 1587 the bishop set out to return to Portugal to report on his activities. Jan Huygen van Linschoten stayed behind in Asia. He was thought to be collecting interest. He also cherished the hope that an occasion might arise for him to travel further east, to China and Japan. In 1588 he was informed that the bishop had died en route back to Europe.
He also heard that his brother's ship had been entirely lost. Jan Huygen van Linschoten suddenly became homesick and decided to himself return to Europe in 1589.
During a stop at Saint Helena, he met Antwerp- born Gerrit van Afhuijsen, who had been to the Maluku Islands (previously known as the Moluku Islands, currently part of Malaysia). He learned a great deal from him about trade in that region. At the next stop, the Azores, he was forced to stay for two years as the island was under siege by the English. He utilized this time to map out the city of Angra on the island of Terceira, as commissioned by the governor. In 1592 he arrived in Lisbon. In the same year, he started out for his homeland and settled once again in Enkhuizen, in what is now the province of Noord-Holland.
Jan Huygen van Linschoten's Itinerario appeared in print in 1596. Amsterdam resident Cornelis Claeszoon, the most important publisher of his time, published the book complete with six topographical maps, 26 illustrations of people and their customs and four prints of trees and fruits.
The 26 illustrations of Asian peoples and the four pictures of eastern crops are separately depicted in the book Icones, also published by Cornelis Claeszoon. These include depictions of Indians, but also of Moluku natives, Javanese and Malaysians. We do not know whether Van Linschoten himself encountered people from these last three population groups in India or whether he described them on the basis of other sources.
With the help of Van Linschoten's guide, four ships set sail on the first long journey eastwards in 1595 (De Eerste Schipvaert (The First Voyage) by Cornelis de Houtman).*
*Research provided by Martine Gosselink, head of the History department at the Rijksmuseum Amsterdam, Netherlands.
**Translated from original German by Karl Nesseler.
Description compiled by Erik Brockett who is pleased to provide additional information relating to this or other examples of the work of Johann Theodor de Bry available at Arader Galleries. He can be contacted at firstname.lastname@example.org