CATESBY, Mark (1683 – 1749) Vol.II, Tab. 69, The Land Frog, Pitcher Plants

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Painted and etched by Mark Catesby (1638 - 1749)
Etching with hand color, paper dimensions: approximately 19 x 14 inches
From Volume II, Part 9 of Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands
London: 1739 - 1771

Currently known as the southern toad, Anaxyrus terrestris, yellow pitcher plant, Sarraceniajlava and nodding or hooded pitcherplan, Sarracenia minor*, Catesby described these subjects as follows:


The Land Frog.

The Back and Upper-part of this Frog is gray, and thick spotted with dark brown Spots; the Belly dusky white, and faintly spotted: The Irides of the Eyes red. They vary somewhat in Colour, some being more gray, others inclining to brown: Their Bodies are large, resembling more a Toad than a Frog, yet they do not crawl as Toads do, but leap; they are seen most in wet Weather, yet are very frequent in the higher Lands, and appear in the hottest time of the Day: They feed on Insects, particularly of one Kind, which the following Accident seems to confirm. As I was sitting in a sultry Evening, with some Company without Doors, one of us let fall from a Pipe of Tobacco some light burning Ashes, which was immediately catched up and swallowed by a Frog of this Kind. This put us upon tempting him with a red hot Wood Coal, not less than the End of ones Finger, which he also swallowed greedily; thus afterwards always found one or other of them cagily deceived in this Manner, as I imagine, by taking it to be a Cicindela, or FireFly, which in hot Nights are very numerous in Virginia and Carolina, where also these Frogs abound.

SARRACENA, foliis longioribus & angustioribus; Bucanephyllon elatius Virginianum. Pluk. Alm. P. 72 T. 152. F. 3.

As this and the following Plate exhibit two Plants of the same Genus, and which in many Parts of their Structure agree with the Description of each other, I found it necessary to refer from one to the other in order to explain some Parts, which are not alike displayed in both Plates, and consequently cannot give so perfect Idea without such Referrence.

The Leaves of this Plant are tubelous, and ribbed, arising from a knotty fiberous Root, to the Height of about three Feet; they are small at the Root, widening gradually to the Mouth of the Tube, which in young Leaves are closed, but open by Degrees, as the Leaf increaseth, and when near its full Growth arches over the Mouth of the Tube, in Form of a Fryar's Cowl, Fig. 1. This Cowl expands itself till the Leaf is at full Bigness, having its Inside of a greenish Yellow, veined with Purple, Fig. 2. yet retaining somwhat the Position it first had, by hanging over the Mouth of the Tube, which otherwise would be filled with Rain, and fall by the Weight of Water, it being of a thin Substance, and of a yellowish green Colour; The Flowers, which hang inclining, grow each on a single Foot-stalk, of between two and three Feet high, springing from the Root, in like Manner with the Leaves. While the Flower is in bloom, many small yellow Apices, hanging by Threads, surround the Ovarium, to which is fixed by a Stylus, a pentagonal thin Membrane, in Form of a Shield, hanging horizontally; between the Intercesses of which hang five thin Petals, growing from the Basis of the Ovarium: On the Top is placed the Calyx divided into five Sections, and compleats the whole Flower, which remains not long in this perfect State, for the five Petals, after continuing a Day or two, fall off, leaving the Remains of the Flower, which continue several Months in the State and Form represented in the next Plate, Fig. 3. The Capsula or Seed Vessel incloses a Core, from which it separates when the Seeds are ripe, and divides into five Parts, each of which is again divided by a thin Membrane, by which ten Cells are formed, in which the Seeds lie: Fig. 4. shews the under Part of the Flower, as it appears when spread open, with the Shield reflected, resembling somewhat the Seat of a Side Saddle, from which in Virginia it has received its Name of Side-Saddle Flower. These Plants grow in Bogs and watery Places in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Pensylvania.

Mark Catesby (1683 – 1749)

Facts regarding Catesby’s early years are scant. It is known that he was born in the ancient market town of Sudbury, England to a father who was a legal practitioner and mayor of Sudbury and to a mother from an old Essex family.  It seems that he received an understanding of Latin and French and was familiar with the eminent naturalist Reverend John Ray. Following his father’s death, he was endowed with the means to pursue his interest in the natural history of North America.

Catesby arrived in Virginia in 1712 as the guest of his sister and her husband, Dr. William Cocke, an aid the Governor of the colony.  Soon he was acquainted with the well-connected William Byrd, a Fellow of the Royal Society whose diary contains passages discussing Catesby’s strong curiosity with all things relating to North America. 

This included plants native to the fields and woods of Virginia through which Catesby traveled, collecting examples of botanical specimens unfamiliar in England, which he illustrated and sent back to his uncle, Nicholas Jekyll and the apothecary and botanist, Samuel Dale.

Catesby’s first trip to the New World was extensive and included a visit to Jamaica. Although he felt that his approach to a larger understanding of its natural history was lacking in structure, his experience would inform his future expeditions. 

Following his return to London in 1719 Catesby resolved to return to the colonies and gather additional information for his illustrated Natural History... He gained the financial support of members of the local scientific community, many of who were members of the Royal Society keen to send a naturalist to Carolina who could provide an accurate account of its resources.  Among those who belonged to the Royal Society was William Sherard, who after examining Catesby’s drawings, was key in advancing the project. With further backing by Sir Hans Sloane, court physician and naturalist whose collection would form the basis for The British Museum, Catesby sailed to Carolina in 1722.

Catesby’s four years of travels following his second arrival in North America brought him throughout South Carolina, parts of Georgia, and the Bahamas. He was 

intent on visiting the same location at different times throughout the year in order to observe his subjects as they developed. In addition to gathering botanical specimens of potential horticultural importance, he also acquired birds and other creatures.  

Catesby’s patrons in London were eager to receive examples of the varieties of plants and animals he encountered but collecting, packaging, and sending them back to England served as a distraction to his intended Natural History...  Nevertheless, he continued to observe, paint, and write descriptions of the previously un-investigated wildlife he encountered on the shores and in the swamps, woods, and fields of the middle American colonies.

Catesby returned to England from his final voyage to America in 1726 and spent the next seventeen years preparing his Natural History... He envisioned his work containing colored plates reproducing his studies from nature in a substantial, folio-sized format, an achievement nearly unprecedented in earlier natural history publications. Catesby arranged for financing in the form of an interest-free loan from the Quaker Peter Collinson, a fellow of the Royal Society. Nevertheless, the cost of paying professionals to prepare his delineations on copper plates for printing was too great. To this end, with the assistance of Joseph Goupy (1689–1769), a French artist living in London, he taught himself to etch.  In addition to producing nearly all of the plates for his publication, Catesby closely supervised the coloring of the engravings, either painting the impressions himself or closely overseeing the work to insure its fidelity to his preparatory work. To further finance the project Catesby sold subscriptions, offering his book in sections of 20 plates to be published every four months.

The first volume of Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands, containing one hundred plates, was completed in 1731 and no doubt facilitated his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in February, 1733. The second volume, also containing one hundred plates, was finished in 1743 and was supplemented with twenty plates based on information sent to Catesby by John Bartram and others in in America appeared in 1746–1747. Of the approximately 180 - 200 copies of the first edition produced, roughly 80 copies remain complete and accounted for and there are an unknown number in private collections. A second edition was issued by George Edwards in 1754 and a third edition, published by Benjamin White, in 1771 who continued to print examples of the plates until at least 1816. As early as 1749 editions were produced for the European market with translations of the text in German, Latin, and Dutch. In these the plates for the first volume and appendix were re-etched by Johann Michael Seligmann and the plates for the second volume re-etched by Nicolaus Friedrich Eisenberger and Georg Lichtensteger.  

Catesby’s tenacity resulted in a sweeping and compelling study of American plants, animals, and marine life native to little documented lands in which he strove to assign scientific nomenclature to his subjects. Indeed, Linnaeus, in his 1758 Systema Naturae, made use of much information brought to light by Catesby using it as the foundation of his system of binomial nomenclature for American species.

Throughout the production of his Natural History…Catesby lived in London with his Elizabeth Rowland with whom he had four children and married in 1747, before his death in 1749.

*From James L. Reveal’s Identification of the plants and animals illustrated by Mark Catesby for The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands in the appendix of The Curious Mr. Catesby, University of Georgia Press.