CATESBY, Mark (1683 – 1749) Vol.II, Tab. 65, The Green Lizard of Carolina, The Sweet Gum-Tree

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Painted and etched by Mark Catesby (1638 - 1749)
Etching with hand color, paper dimensions: approximately 14 x 19 inches
From Volume II, Part 9 of Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands
London: 1739 - 1771

Currently known as the green anole, carolinensis and sweetgum, Liquidambar styracijlua*, Catesby described these subjects as follows:


The Green Lizard of Carolina.

These Lizards are usually about five Inches long, of a dusky green Colour. They frequent Houses, are familiar and harmless, and are suffered with Impunity to sport and catch Flies on Tables and Windows, which they do very dexterously, and no less divertingly. They appear chiefly in Summer, and at the Approach of cold Weather, they retreat to their Winter Recesses, and lie torpid in the Hollows and Crevices of rotten Trees. These Lizards change their Colour in some Measure, like the Camelion, for in a hot Day their Colour has been a bright Green, the next Day changing Cold, the same Lizard appeared brown. They are a Prey to Cats, and ravenous Birds. It frequently happens that a few warm Sun-shiny Days so invigorates them, that they will come out of their Winter Retirements and appear abroad, when on a sudden the Weather changing to Cold, so enfeebles them, that they are incapacitated to creep to their Winter Holes, and die of Cold.

LIQUID-AMBARI Arbor, Seu Styraciflua, Aceris folio, fructu Tribuloide, i.e. Pericarpio orbiculari ex quam plurimus apicibus coagmentato, semen recondens. Plukenet. Almagest. Bot. pag. 224. Phytogr. Tab. 42. Fig. 6.

The Sweet Gum-Tree.

The Trunc of this Tree is commonly two Foot in Diameter, strait and free from Branches to the Height of about fifteen Feet; from which the Branches spread and rise in a Conic Form to the Height of Forty Feet and upward from the Ground. The Leaves are five-pointed, being divided into so many deep Sections, and are set on long slender Pedicles. In February, before the Leaves are formed, the Blossoms begin to break forth from the Tops of the Branches into Spikes of yellowish red, pappous, globular Flowers, which when the Apices are blown off by the Wind, swell gradually, retaining their round Form, to the full Maturity of their Seed Vessels, which are thick set with pointed hollow Protuberances, and spliting open discharge their Seeds, each Cell containing a Seed, winged at one End with many small Grains, distinct from the Seed.

The Wood is good Timber, and is used in Wainscoting, &c. The Grain is fine, and some of it beautifully variegated, and very fit for curious Works in Joinery, but when wrought too green, is apt to shrink and fly from its Joints, to prevent which no lets than eight or ten Years is sufficient to season its Planks; yet the regular Form and Beauty of this Tree deserves the Regard of the Curious, none of the American Trees affecting more our Soil and Climate. From between the Wood and the Bark of this Tree issue a fragrant Gum, which trickles from the wounded Trees, and by the Heat of the Sun congeals into transparent resinous Drops, which the Indians chew, esteeming it a Preservative of their Teeth: The Bark is also of singular Use to them for covering their Houses, which has frequently given me an Opportunity of gathering the Gum from Trees so strip'd of their Bark, one of which would yield an Hat full of Gum. This Gum smells so like the Balsam of Tolu, that it is not easy to distinguish them.

Mark Catesby (1683 – 1749)

Facts regarding Catesby’s early years are scant. It is known that he was born in the ancient market town of Sudbury, England to a father who was a legal practitioner and mayor of Sudbury and to a mother from an old Essex family.  It seems that he received an understanding of Latin and French and was familiar with the eminent naturalist Reverend John Ray. Following his father’s death, he was endowed with the means to pursue his interest in the natural history of North America.

Catesby arrived in Virginia in 1712 as the guest of his sister and her husband, Dr. William Cocke, an aid the Governor of the colony.  Soon he was acquainted with the well-connected William Byrd, a Fellow of the Royal Society whose diary contains passages discussing Catesby’s strong curiosity with all things relating to North America. 

This included plants native to the fields and woods of Virginia through which Catesby traveled, collecting examples of botanical specimens unfamiliar in England, which he illustrated and sent back to his uncle, Nicholas Jekyll and the apothecary and botanist, Samuel Dale.

Catesby’s first trip to the New World was extensive and included a visit to Jamaica. Although he felt that his approach to a larger understanding of its natural history was lacking in structure, his experience would inform his future expeditions. 

Following his return to London in 1719 Catesby resolved to return to the colonies and gather additional information for his illustrated Natural History... He gained the financial support of members of the local scientific community, many of who were members of the Royal Society keen to send a naturalist to Carolina who could provide an accurate account of its resources.  Among those who belonged to the Royal Society was William Sherard, who after examining Catesby’s drawings, was key in advancing the project. With further backing by Sir Hans Sloane, court physician and naturalist whose collection would form the basis for The British Museum, Catesby sailed to Carolina in 1722.

Catesby’s four years of travels following his second arrival in North America brought him throughout South Carolina, parts of Georgia, and the Bahamas. He was 

intent on visiting the same location at different times throughout the year in order to observe his subjects as they developed. In addition to gathering botanical specimens of potential horticultural importance, he also acquired birds and other creatures.  

Catesby’s patrons in London were eager to receive examples of the varieties of plants and animals he encountered but collecting, packaging, and sending them back to England served as a distraction to his intended Natural History...  Nevertheless, he continued to observe, paint, and write descriptions of the previously un-investigated wildlife he encountered on the shores and in the swamps, woods, and fields of the middle American colonies.

Catesby returned to England from his final voyage to America in 1726 and spent the next seventeen years preparing his Natural History... He envisioned his work containing colored plates reproducing his studies from nature in a substantial, folio-sized format, an achievement nearly unprecedented in earlier natural history publications. Catesby arranged for financing in the form of an interest-free loan from the Quaker Peter Collinson, a fellow of the Royal Society. Nevertheless, the cost of paying professionals to prepare his delineations on copper plates for printing was too great. To this end, with the assistance of Joseph Goupy (1689–1769), a French artist living in London, he taught himself to etch.  In addition to producing nearly all of the plates for his publication, Catesby closely supervised the coloring of the engravings, either painting the impressions himself or closely overseeing the work to insure its fidelity to his preparatory work. To further finance the project Catesby sold subscriptions, offering his book in sections of 20 plates to be published every four months.

The first volume of Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands, containing one hundred plates, was completed in 1731 and no doubt facilitated his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in February, 1733. The second volume, also containing one hundred plates, was finished in 1743 and was supplemented with twenty plates based on information sent to Catesby by John Bartram and others in in America appeared in 1746–1747. Of the approximately 180 - 200 copies of the first edition produced, roughly 80 copies remain complete and accounted for and there are an unknown number in private collections. A second edition was issued by George Edwards in 1754 and a third edition, published by Benjamin White, in 1771 who continued to print examples of the plates until at least 1816. As early as 1749 editions were produced for the European market with translations of the text in German, Latin, and Dutch. In these the plates for the first volume and appendix were re-etched by Johann Michael Seligmann and the plates for the second volume re-etched by Nicolaus Friedrich Eisenberger and Georg Lichtensteger.  

Catesby’s tenacity resulted in a sweeping and compelling study of American plants, animals, and marine life native to little documented lands in which he strove to assign scientific nomenclature to his subjects. Indeed, Linnaeus, in his 1758 Systema Naturae, made use of much information brought to light by Catesby using it as the foundation of his system of binomial nomenclature for American species.

Throughout the production of his Natural History…Catesby lived in London with his Elizabeth Rowland with whom he had four children and married in 1747, before his death in 1749.

*From James L. Reveal’s Identification of the plants and animals illustrated by Mark Catesby for The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands in the appendix of The Curious Mr. Catesby, University of Georgia Press.