CATESBY, Mark (1683 – 1749) Vol.I, Tab. 38, The Red Bird, The Hiccory Tree, and The Pignut

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Painted and etched by Mark Catesby (1638 - 1749)
Etching with hand color, paper dimensions: approximately 19 x 14 inches
From Volume I, Part 2 of Catesby's Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands
London: 1730 - 1771

Currently known as the northern cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis, mockernut hickory, Carya tomentosa, and pignut, Carya glabra*, Catesby described these subjects as follows:


The red Bird.

In Bigness it equals if not exceeds the Sky-Lark. The Bill is of a pale red, very thick and strong. A black Lift encompasses the Basis of it. The Head is adorned with a towering Crest, which it raises and falls at Pleausure. Except the Black round the Basis of the Bill, the whole Bird is scarlet, though the Back and Tail have least Lustre, being darker and of a more Cloudy red.

The Hen is brown; yet has a tincture of red on her Wings, Bill and other parts. They often sing in Cages as well as the Cocks. These Birds are common in all parts of America, from New England to the Capes of Florida, and probably much more South. They are seldom seen above three or four together. They have a very great Strength with their Bill, with which they will breack the harden Grain of Maiz with much facility. It is a hardy and familiar Bird. They are frequently brought from Virginia and other parts of North America for their Beauty and agreable Singing, they having some Notes not unlike our Nightingale, which in England seems to have caused its Name of the Virginia-Nightingale, though in those Countries they call it the Red-Bird.

Nux Juglans alba Virgiensis. Park. Theat. 1414


This usually a tall Tree, and oftenn grows to a large Bulk, the Body being from two to three Feet Diameter. The Leaves are serrated, narrower and sharper pointed than the Walnut, but in Manner of growing on foot-stalks, like it. The Nuts are inclosed in like manner with the Walnut, with an outer and inner Shell. In October, at which time they are ripe, the outer Shell opens and divides in Quarters, disclosing the Nut, the shell of which is thick, not easily broke but with a Hammer. The Kernel is sweet and well tasted, from which the Indians draw a wholesome and pleasant Oil, storing them up for their Winter-Provision. The Hogs and many wild Animals receive great Benefit from them. The Wood is course-grained; yet of much use for many things belonging to Agriculture. Of the Saplings or young Trees are made the best Hoops for Tobacco, Rice and Tar-Barrels: And for the Fire no Wood in the Northern parts of America is in so much Request. The Bark is deeply furrowed.

Nux Juglians Caralinensis fructu minimo putamine levi.


The Branches of this Tree spread more, are smaller, and the Leaves not so broad as the Hiccory; nor is the Bark so wrinkled. The Nuts are not above one forth part so big as those of the Hiccory, having both the inner and outer shell very thin; so that they may easily be broke with one's Fingers. The kernels are sweet; but being small, and covered with a very hitter skin, makes them usuless, except for Squirrels and other Wild Creatures.

Another Walnut remains to be observed, which I never saw but in Virginia and is there called the white Walnut. The Tree is usually small; the Bark and Grain of the Wood very White: The Nut is About the size or rather less than the black Walnut, of an oval form, the outermost shell being rough.

Mark Catesby (1683 – 1749)

Facts regarding Catesby’s early years are scant. It is known that he was born in the ancient market town of Sudbury, England to a father who was a legal practitioner and mayor of Sudbury and to a mother from an old Essex family.  It seems that he received an understanding of Latin and French and was familiar with the eminent naturalist Reverend John Ray. Following his father’s death, he was endowed with the means to pursue his interest in the natural history of North America.

Catesby arrived in Virginia in 1712 as the guest of his sister and her husband, Dr. William Cocke, an aid the Governor of the colony.  Soon he was acquainted with the well-connected William Byrd, a Fellow of the Royal Society whose diary contains passages discussing Catesby’s strong curiosity with all things relating to North America. 

This included plants native to the fields and woods of Virginia through which Catesby traveled, collecting examples of botanical specimens unfamiliar in England, which he illustrated and sent back to his uncle, Nicholas Jekyll and the apothecary and botanist, Samuel Dale.

Catesby’s first trip to the New World was extensive and included a visit to Jamaica. Although he felt that his approach to a larger understanding of its natural history was lacking in structure, his experience would inform his future expeditions. 

Following his return to London in 1719 Catesby resolved to return to the colonies and gather additional information for his illustrated Natural History... He gained the financial support of members of the local scientific community, many of who were members of the Royal Society keen to send a naturalist to Carolina who could provide an accurate account of its resources.  Among those who belonged to the Royal Society was William Sherard, who after examining Catesby’s drawings, was key in advancing the project. With further backing by Sir Hans Sloane, court physician and naturalist whose collection would form the basis for The British Museum, Catesby sailed to Carolina in 1722.

Catesby’s four years of travels following his second arrival in North America brought him throughout South Carolina, parts of Georgia, and the Bahamas. He was 

intent on visiting the same location at different times throughout the year in order to observe his subjects as they developed. In addition to gathering botanical specimens of potential horticultural importance, he also acquired birds and other creatures.  

Catesby’s patrons in London were eager to receive examples of the varieties of plants and animals he encountered but collecting, packaging, and sending them back to England served as a distraction to his intended Natural History...  Nevertheless, he continued to observe, paint, and write descriptions of the previously un-investigated wildlife he encountered on the shores and in the swamps, woods, and fields of the middle American colonies.

Catesby returned to England from his final voyage to America in 1726 and spent the next seventeen years preparing his Natural History... He envisioned his work containing colored plates reproducing his studies from nature in a substantial, folio-sized format, an achievement nearly unprecedented in earlier natural history publications. Catesby arranged for financing in the form of an interest-free loan from the Quaker Peter Collinson, a fellow of the Royal Society. Nevertheless, the cost of paying professionals to prepare his delineations on copper plates for printing was too great. To this end, with the assistance of Joseph Goupy (1689–1769), a French artist living in London, he taught himself to etch.  In addition to producing nearly all of the plates for his publication, Catesby closely supervised the coloring of the engravings, either painting the impressions himself or closely overseeing the work to insure its fidelity to his preparatory work. To further finance the project Catesby sold subscriptions, offering his book in sections of 20 plates to be published every four months.

The first volume of Natural History of Carolina, Florida & the Bahama Islands, containing one hundred plates, was completed in 1731 and no doubt facilitated his election as a fellow of the Royal Society in February, 1733. The second volume, also containing one hundred plates, was finished in 1743 and was supplemented with twenty plates based on information sent to Catesby by John Bartram and others in in America appeared in 1746–1747. Of the approximately 180 - 200 copies of the first edition produced, roughly 80 copies remain complete and accounted for and there are an unknown number in private collections. A second edition was issued by George Edwards in 1754 and a third edition, published by Benjamin White, in 1771 who continued to print examples of the plates until at least 1816. As early as 1749 editions were produced for the European market with translations of the text in German, Latin, and Dutch. In these the plates for the first volume and appendix were re-etched by Johann Michael Seligmann and the plates for the second volume re-etched by Nicolaus Friedrich Eisenberger and Georg Lichtensteger.  

Catesby’s tenacity resulted in a sweeping and compelling study of American plants, animals, and marine life native to little documented lands in which he strove to assign scientific nomenclature to his subjects. Indeed, Linnaeus, in his 1758 Systema Naturae, made use of much information brought to light by Catesby using it as the foundation of his system of binomial nomenclature for American species.

Throughout the production of his Natural History…Catesby lived in London with his Elizabeth Rowland with whom he had four children and married in 1747, before his death in 1749.

*From James L. Reveal’s Identification of the plants and animals illustrated by Mark Catesby for The natural history of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama islands in the appendix of The Curious Mr. Catesby, University of Georgia Press.