BRAUN, Georg (1541-1622) and HOGENBERG, Frans (fl. 1540-1590). “Rotomagvs, vulgo Roan, Nor Mandjae Metropolis. Nemavsus Njsmes Civitas Nar Bonensis Galliae Vetust Jssima...” Cologne: T. Graminaeus, 1572-90.
BRAUN, Georg (1541-1622) and HOGENBERG, Frans (fl. 1540-1590). Civitates Orbis Terrarum. “Rotomagvs, vulgo Roan, Nor Mandjae Metropolis. Nemavsus Njsmes Civitas Nar Bonensis Galliae Vetust Jssima...” Cologne: T. Graminaeus, 1572-90.
Single page (22 x 16 ½) Full margins showing the plate mark (foxing, browning, margin staining, chipping)
An attractive trio of French cities, namely Rouen, Bordeaux, and Nimes; taken from the Civitates Orbis Terrarum by famed Braun and Hogenberg.
The most subtle aspect of these three plans is their Roman roots. Originally parts of Roman provinces, we can frequently see the city walls, amphitheatres, and roads; presented less as backdrops and in as much use here in the 16th century as they were in the Roman era.
Rouen held a favorable position, between the right bank of the Seine and the rolling pastoral hills. The staffage suggests the frequent route of trade and travel between Rouen and Paris. Nimes, an old flourishing settlement dating to the Celts, held an important role as capital of the Narbonensis province mid 2nd century. The Via Domitia, a major transportation road linking Italy with Spain, ran right through the city – frequently providing the city with ample trade opportunities and visitors. The most regocnizable feature of this plan is the Roman Amphitetheare to the left. Its facacde, made up of two stories and sixty arches, is evident even with the foreshortening. The Pont du Gare, considered one of the most brilliant works of Roman civil engineering, is seen in a distance. In our plan of Bordeaux, it is evident from the size of the city’s harbor that it was already an important point of trade between France and the Colonies. The fortifications, seen to the top and bottom left, were built by Charles VII in 15th c. following the King’s reconquest of the city. We find a Roman amphitheater sitting in the outskirts of the city – emphasizing yet again, Bordeaux’s Roman roots.
The ‘Civitates Orbis Terrarum’ (‘Atlas of the Cities of the World’) by Braun and Hogenburg is the second oldest printed atlas in the history of world cartography; and the first atlas of towns. Its principal creators and authors were the theologist and editor Georg Braun, the most important engraver and publisher Franz Hogenberg. Other artists involved were Simon van den Neuvel, Georg Hoefnagel, Jacob van Deventer – to name a few. Although it was published outside of the Netherlands, the Civitates is considered one of the better examples of the Antwerp School of Cartographers, due to its Flemish style of engraving – a trait typical of Dutch atlases from the period. One of the most well-known figures from this school, who also played a key role in the making of this atlas, was Abraham Ortelius. It is frequently thought that the Civitates is the direct and intended companion for Ortelius’ famous ‘Theatrum Orbis Terrarum’ (1570). In addition to this, there is evidence of correspondence between these three great men and their ideas to create such an atlas.
The first volume of the Civitates Orbis Terrarum was published in Cologne in 1572. Its sixth and final volume appeared later in 1617. The Civitates was a widespread and enormously successful. It was frequently republished and supplemented with new sections with later editions. The maps it contained became exemplary and references; thus often reproduced in smaller formats as illustrations for books by other publishers.
The atlas bares over 500 maps, representing an entire era in the lavish history of town-mapping. Earlier collections of city views were heterogeneous productions, limited in scope, and often made no meaningful attempt to render the subjects with any degree of realism. The Civitates, by contrast, contained hundreds of views, including many of smaller towns for which no earlier representations are known, depicted with unprecedented accuracy. Braun corresponded extensively with map sellers and scholars from different cities and countries to achieve the highest level of accuracy in his mapping. In addition, the authors also carried out their own investigations, through detailed on-location drawings of panoramic views of the towns made from some high point. It took over forty years to collect the hundreds of plans contained in the Civitates.
The plans, each accompanied by Braun's printed account of the town's history, situation and commerce, form a lavish armchair-traveler's compendium, and provide a uniquely comprehensive view of urban life at the turn of the sixteenth century. The significance of its being printed in Cologne extends to the city’s independence of being a free imperial state. There were few cities which held this right in 16th century Europe; and Cologne’s success as a free state resulted in great economic growth allowing for the growth of guilds and crafts, such as printing and publishing.
For more information on this map, or a warm welcome to see other maps and books of our collection at 72nd Street NYC, please contact Natalie Zadrozna.